Centre for Vocational and Entrepreneurial Studies

The Centre for Entrepreneurship and Vocational Studies (CEVS) is a service unit within the Technical University, Ibadan, Oyo State. The mandate of CEVS is to warehouse and operationalize the entrepreneurship and vocational skill development of the Technical University. This is with the view of contributing to the socio-economic development process in Nigeria with particular reference to job creation and economic diversification.

The first and second sections of this document provides the background information and the philosophy of the entrepreneurship programme of CEVS respectively; the third section articulates the entrepreneurship objectives of CEVS; the fourth section presents the Mission and Vision Statements of CEVS; the fifth section highlights the recommended entrepreneurship and vocational skill development programmes of CEVS.


In Nigeria, the challenge of graduate and youth unemployment has assumed a worrisome dimension. According to the report of Federal office of Statistics. Less than 20 per cent of graduates of the school system get absorbed into the labour market annually. This situation is linked to the rapid growth and demand for western education which has resulted in the continuous over supply of graduates far beyond the demand of the labour market. Another reason that has been advanced for the increasing rate of graduate unemployment is the socio-cultural orientation of youths towards paid employment rather than self-employment; similar to this is the nature of the curriculum of the formal education system which over time has prepared graduates to be job seekers rather than job givers. Apart from this, employers of labour in Nigeria has blamed the preponderance of graduate unemployed on skill mismatch between the outputs of the formal school system and the requirements of the industries; put differently, a sizable percentage of unemployed graduates are by default unemployable in the context of the demands of the labour market. A more critical cause of graduate unemployment is dwindling fortune of the Nigerian economy, coming on the heels of over dependence on crude oil, compelling many industries with high employment generating prospects to either downsize or shut down altogether.

Nigeria is Africa’s most populous nation and leading oil producer with the second natural gas reserve in sub-Sahara Africa. This should translate into real gains and good quality of life for Nigerians; apparently, it has not. Sixty-one percent of Nigerians live in poverty, while unemployment rate rose by about thirteen percent in the last quarter of 2016. The economy still depends heavily on oil, which accounts for seventy-five percent of government revenue and ninety-five percent of export. Over the years, oil revenue has displaced more stable and sustainable revenue flow while expenditure has not been used to pursue diversification of the economy. Consequently, labour and capital tend to migrate to the oil resource sector from other productive sector, resulting in higher cost and reduced competitiveness for domestically produced goods and services thereby impeding the activities of the real sector with grievous implication on employment.

In line with the thinking across the globe, successive Nigerian’s government are increasingly realizing that the long term economic prospects of the country are good on the condition that the real sector is supported to grow. This informed the proliferating emphasis on entrepreneurship and SMEs development as catalysts for economic development and job creation by the government of Nigeria in recent times. One of the measures put in place to reinforce government’s entrepreneurship drive is the call for academic institutions in Nigeria to contribute to the economic development process through entrepreneurship education programmes. In essence, in recognition of the potential of entrepreneurship and SMEs development in reducing the problem of graduate unemployment, the Nigerian government through the National University Commission (NUC) mandated all Nigerian Universities to introduce entrepreneurship education into their academic programme in 2006.

In practice, all Nigerians tertiary institutions run one form of entrepreneurship education programme or the other with different approaches and models. Awareness for entrepreneurship education is increasing by the day and some of the youths and graduates of tertiary institutions are seriously considering the option of self-employment as a career option. Nonetheless, there appears to be a missing link; the quantum of entrepreneurship education programme in Nigeria has not produced commensurate start-ups to justify its investment and impact positively the unemployment situation in the country. Natural resources still lie idle while opportunities in the agricultural, ICT and non-oil sector remains untapped. This situation can be attributed to the nature of entrepreneurship education provided, the pattern of delivery, availability of resources or facilities and the capacity of the instructors. To achieve maximum result, the entrepreneurship education ecosystem need to be streamlined to identify, engage and develop the capacity of the major stakeholders to contribute their quota maximally and foster a productive and sustainable entrepreneurship culture and SMEs development in the Nigeria.

On assumption of office as the Executive Governor of Oyo State in 2011, His Excellency, senator Abiola Ajimobi conceived the idea of technical university (Tech-U), a unique concept of tertiary education system in Nigeria with the vision of producing a technically proficient professional with impeccable entrepreneurship skills relevant to the needs of the industries, thereby engendering sustainable job creation and employment. The university was formally recognized by the NUC on 7th December, 2012 and academic activities commences in December 2017. In pursuant of the mission of Tech-U, the Centre for Entrepreneurship and Vocational Studies was proposed and approved by the NUC as one of the take-off programmes for 2017/2018 academic session, to anchor the entrepreneurship and vocational skills development programmes of the institution. Given this background, this concept note provides a blueprint for the activities of the Centre for Entrepreneurship and Vocational Studies.


The underlying assumptions upon which the entrepreneurial objectives and Programmes are hinged are enumerated as follows:

  • SMEs are the drivers of new jobs
  • Behind every new job lies the spirit of imagination and Entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurship fosters economic growth, sustainable development and job creation
  • Entrepreneurship principles, values and skills can be developed and nurtured through educational process
  • Entrepreneurship Skills and attributes are required for innovation in business and enterprise expansion
  • Entrepreneurs have important roles to play in fostering entrepreneurship spirit, skills and attributes
  • Entrepreneurship skills and attributes can enhance the employability prospects of individuals
  • Entrepreneurship skills and attributes will enhance the productivity of individuals and stand them out of the crowd in any given job
  • All disciplines are commercializable in the context job creation
  • Entrepreneurship education Programmes should be designed and administered according to the need of the target clientele
  • Only entrepreneurial faculties will effectively deliver entrepreneurship instructions
  • The capacity of lectures must be developed from time to time deliver entrepreneurship instructions
  • Result oriented entrepreneurship programme must engage mentors actively in the educational process
  • Entrepreneurship education will achieve better result with self-motivated students
  • Use of Library & Information Science


In line with the highlighted assumptions, the objectives of entrepreneurship education programme of Technical University include:

  • Fostering the culture of entrepreneurship and self-employment
  • Expose students to post graduation career options and opportunities inherent in their discipline
  • Equipping students to start, manage and grow successful enterprises
  • Providing education and technical support for the creation of new ventures
  • Promoting, supporting and facilitating Job creation
  • Enhancing the employability prospects of undergraduates
  • Fostering creativity and innovation among undergraduates
  • Discovering, nurturing and promoting entrepreneurial talents among the undergraduates of TU
  • Facilitating university-industry linkages for the development of entrepreneurial capacity among undergraduates
  • Facilitating international networks for entrepreneurial capacity building for staff and students of entrepreneurship programme of TU
  • Promotion of primary industries through research and Programmes aimed at encouraging the exploitation and utilization of local resources
  • Promoting the development of adaptable technology


Mission Statement of Tech-U CEVS
Providing technical entrepreneurship education for creativity, innovation and self-employment in response to the need and changing dynamics of the industries.

Vision statement of Tech-U CEVS
To be a centre of excellence in technical entrepreneurship, vocational and employability skills development in Africa


Entrepreneurship Education is interdisciplinary and is therefore weaved throughout the curricular of TU academic programmes for optimal effectiveness. In line with the academic mandates of TU, Entrepreneurship Orientation Training Programme, Entrepreneurship Development Programmes, Hands-on Vocational Skills Acquisition/ Employability Skills Apprenticeship Programme and Entrepreneurship Finishing School are non-optional for all students.

Entrepreneurship Orientation Programme

This is a two week long intensive entrepreneurship programme aimed at introducing freshers to the concept, principles and opportunities inherent in entrepreneurship early enough before the commencement of regular academic activities. The objective is to sensitive students to the many prospects of entrepreneurship and motivate them to consider entrepreneurship as a post-graduation career. The programme will employ pull and push strategies to communicate the need for entrepreneurship and trigger the inclination of students towards self-employment. EOP will develop the capacity of students to recognize entrepreneurial opportunities in their chosen discipline as they make progress in their academic career. Successful entrepreneurs will be on ground to motivate the students; entrepreneurship tour can also be organized to broaden the imagination of the students. The programme is hinged on the philosophy that entrepreneurship will achieve better result with self-motivated students. The programme will also introduce participants to different career options and the procedure for making career decisions.

Entrepreneurship Development Programme

LevelSemesterCourse CodeCourse TitleUnit
100HarmattanEVS 111Introduction to Entrepreneurship1
RainEVS 112Entrepreneurship Skills, Attitudes and Behaviour1
200HarmattanEVS 211Entrepreneurship Opportunity Recognition1
RainEVS 212Entrepreneurship and Self Employment Process1
300HarmattanEVS 311Business start-up Principles and Practice1
RainEVS 312Managing and Growing Business1
400HarmattanEVS 411Practical, Internship and Exhibition1
RainEVS 412Finishing School1


100 level: Harmattan Semester  EVS 111:

Introduction to Entrepreneurship

Course outline

This is a foundational course aimed at introducing students to the concept of entrepreneurship and the justifications for entrepreneurship in an economic system.   The course will employ contemporary approaches to underscore the benefits and drawback of entrepreneurship. Some of the topics to be covered include:

  • History of entrepreneurship, definition of entrepreneurship and entrepreneur, justification for entrepreneurship studies
  • Types of Entrepreneurship
  • Theories of Entrepreneurship: Nature VS Nurture
  • Business Management, Intrapreneurship and Entrepreneurship
  • Importance and of Entrepreneurship in the Economy
  • Rewards and drawbacks of entrepreneurship
  • Who can be an entrepreneur?
  • Success factors in Entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurs’ Profiling

EVS 112: Entrepreneurial Skills, attitudes and behaviours

Course outline

The course aims at developing the following entrepreneurship skills, attitudes and behaviour of students:

  • Creative thinking and problem solving
  • Communication and presentation skills
  • Hard work and self-confidence
  • Team work and leadership
  • Negotiation and decision making
  • Goal setting and time management
  • Managing risk and responding to change
  • Proactivity and persistence
  • Information seeking
  • Opportunity recognition, identification and creation
  • Commitment to the work contract
  • Innovation and initiative

200 Level: Harmattan Semester
EVS 211: Entrepreneurship Opportunity Recognition

The course aims at sensitizing students to the entrepreneurship opportunities in their person, their families and their geographical environment. Some of the topics that will be covered in this course include:

  • Self-recognition/ identification: recognizing and developing innate abilities/ talents/ natural endowment from entrepreneurship viewpoint
  • Exploring entrepreneurial background/ legacy – trades, skills, business in the family with entrepreneurial prospects
  • Entrepreneurship opportunities in students’ locality e.g. raw materials, agricultural commodities
  • Entrepreneurship/ investment profile of Nigeria by natural resources
  • Term paper on personal, family and geographical entrepreneurship opportunity of students
  • National entrepreneurship baseline survey report presentation by students


EVS 212: Entrepreneurship and self-employment process

The course aims at developing the capacity of learners to entrepreneurship decision making process. Some of the topics that will be taught include:

  • Definition of business idea and business opportunity
  • Process of generating, screening and selection of venture ideas
  • Identifying and exploiting business opportunities
  • Quantitative methods for analysing business opportunities
  • The entrepreneurial decision
  • MIAR framework for key success factors in business

300 level: Harmattan Semester   

EVS 311: Business start-up principles and practice

The course aims at providing practical guidelines to starting a business venture

  • Definition and categorization of business
  • Forms of Business
  • The business plan
  • Business registration
  • Generating and testing business idea
  • Financial planning
  • Products and services costing
  • The marketing plan
  • Staffing
  • Ethics and social responsibilities
  • Introduction to money management and capital market
  • Required start-up capital and Entrepreneurial financing
  • Types, Sources and uses of raw materials


EVS 312: Managing and growing business

  • Managing human resources
  • Business Environment
  • Government policy incentives for entrepreneurship development
  • Entrepreneurship support institutions
  • Computer based technology for business management
  • Risk and insurance management
  • Technology Operations Management
  • Quality management and operation process
  • Introduction to International trade
  • Entrepreneurial Succession
  • Introduction to money management and capital market
  • Family business

400 level: Harmattan Semester

EVS 411: Practical, Internship and Exhibition

The course aims at exposing students to relevant vocations as a way of introducing them to business process and possible vocational career options. Students will be required to choose and acquire proficiency in not less than three vocational skills of their interest. They will be made to undergo learning through apprenticeship and prepare a business plan for the commercialization of the vocations of their choice. Funding will be sought for promising business plans from the different development finance institutions in Nigeria such as Bank of Industry, Central Bank of Nigeria and Bank of Agriculture. Some of the vocations that will be offered include:

  • Waste to wealth management
  • Managing NGOs
  • Mechatronics
  • Underwater welding
  • Tourism
  • Real estate
  • Catering and event management
  • Public speaking
  • Photography
  • Software development
  • Landscaping
  • Environmental impact assessment
  • Sound engineering
  • Aircraft maintenance
  • Wood works
  • Paint production
  • Leather works
  • Printing and publishing
  • Interior and Event decoration
  • Travel consulting
  • Juice, ice cream and water production
  • Graphic designing and social media advertisement
  • Physical building construction

Rain Semester EVS 412: Entrepreneurship/ Intrapreneurship finishing school

The finishing school is conceived as an intensive employability and entrepreneurship capacity building programme for all graduating students in their last semester. The objective of the school is two folds; first, it aims at equipping students who have demonstrated keen interest in entrepreneurship and passed the inclination screening test with the skills required to start and run the enterprise of their choices. Secondly, it will prepare students who wish to take up employment in the corporate world to access the best of jobs function professionally at such jobs. The curriculum of the school will be designed based on a robust need assessment of the relevant enterprises or job title and in collaboration with successful entrepreneurs, captains of industry and human resource personnel of corporate organizations. Successful entrepreneurs and distinguished personalities from the corporate world will be invited from time to time to instruct the students in the classroom. Students will be exposed to all the relevant professional qualification and training that could enhance their employability prospects and position them for a successful career in entrepreneurship. The will also be exposed to aptitude test and in preparation for their employment in the choice industry.


The Centre will be involved in extensive consultancy and human capital development and other utilitarian services in its catchment areas. These activities will be aimed at fostering town- gown relationship between the Technical University and its catchment area. The Centre will further seek institutional collaboration with other entrepreneurship support institution both home and abroad to strengthen the entrepreneurship development programme of Tech U.